Beklemishevskaya Tower (1487-1488), Kremlin, Moscow, Russia.
This tower was erected by Italian architect Marco Ruffo, also known as Marco Fryazin. It was named after Boyar Bersen-Beklemishev, whose manor was located in the vicinity.
The Beklemishevskaya Tower performed a very important function in defending the Kremlin. It was the first to take the attacks of besiegers, since it was situated at the junction of the Moscow River and the moat. This is probably what determined the choice of simple architectural design. In the cellar there was a hidden space used to listen out for enemies trying to dig a tunnel to the wall or plant explosives there.